- Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices.
- Solution methods- nodal and mesh analysis.
- Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation.
- Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors.
- Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits.
- 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions.
- State equations for networks.
- ELECTRONIC DEVICES
- Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon.
- Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity.
- Generation and recombination of carriers.
- PN junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-l-n and avalanche photodiode, Basics of LASERs.
- Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.
- ANALOG CIRCUITS
- Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS.
- Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier, Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers.
- Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential and operational, feedback, and power.
- Frequency response of amplifiers.
- Simple op-amp circuits.
- Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations.
- Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, 555Timers.
- Power supplies.
- DIGITAL CIRCUITS
- Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS).
- Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers.
- Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs.
- Semiconductor memories.
- Microprocessor (8085)- architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
- SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS
- Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete -time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform.
- Sampling theorem.
- Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay.
- Signal transmission through LTI systems.
- CONTROL SYSTEMS
- Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams.
- Open Loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems.
- Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response.
- Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.
- Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional — Integral — Derivative(PID) control.
- State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
- Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density.
- Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions.
- Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem.
- Digital Communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSIS, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes.
- Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
- Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms.
- Wave equation, Poynting vector.
- Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth.
- Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S Parameters, pulse excitement.
- Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations.
- Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers.
- Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.
- Circuit components; circuit analysis; basic network theorems and applications; resonant circuits
2. Signals & Systems
- Continuous-time and discrete-time signals & systems; Sampling and recovery of signals
3. Analog Electronics
- Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier.
- Biasing and bias stability.
- FET amplifiers; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power.
- OP AMP circuits.
- Filters; sinusoidal oscillators; Function generators and wave-shaping circuits.
4. Digital Electronics
- Logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS).
- Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders.
- Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers.
- Comparators, timers, multivibrators.
- Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories.
- Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).
5. Energy Conversion
- Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines.
- DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors; Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers.
- 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and performance analysis; speed control.
6. Power Electronics and Electric Drives
- Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters: fully controlled and half controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DCDC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac
- Motor drives applications of variable speed drives.
7. Analog Communication
- Random variables; Random signals and noise; Amplitude modulation; Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation, Superheterodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.
8. Control system
- Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed loop systems; Control system components.
- Proportional, PI, PID controller.
9.Measurement and Instrumentation
- Measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power- factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement.
- Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyzer, distortion-meter.
- Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezoelectric crystal.
10. Power Systems-
- Principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.
- Concept of system stability, Static VAR system.
- HVDC transmission.
11. Power System Protection:
- Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection.
- Solid state relays, Circuit breakers, line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays
12. Digital Communication:
- Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), Error detection and correction, Data networks.
- Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, Properties and selection criteria; Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.
2. Solid Mechanics:
- Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses, Bending, Shear and Torsion.
3. Structural Analysis:
- Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strains, Bending moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses; Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams, plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence lines, Unit load method & other methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer Aided Design.
4. Design of Steel Structures:
- Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and compression members, Design of beams and beam column connections, built-up sections, Girders, Industries roofs, Principles of Ultimate load design.
5. Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures:
- Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls, Tanks, Staircases; Principles of prestressed concrete design including materials and methods; Earthquake resistant design of structures; Design of Masonry Structure.
6. Construction Practice, Planning and Management:
- Construction – Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management including Estimation with latest project management tools and network analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety and welfare.
7. Flow of Fluids, Hydraulic Machines and Hydro Power:
- Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow: Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamic including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity, Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow, Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; pipe networks.
- Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power: Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications & performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.
8. Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering:
- Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Flood, drought and their management; capacity of reservoirs.
- Water Resources Engineers: Multipurpose uses of Water, River basins and their potential; irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Resources – storages and their yields; Water logging, canal and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls, weirs, Energy dissipators, barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head-works and their design; concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance; River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.
9. Environmental Engineering:
- Water Supply Engineering, Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; physical, chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water, Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand; Drinking water standards, water treatment plants, water distribution networks.
- Waste Water Engineering: Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and disposal; Plumbing systems. Components and layout of sewerage system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste-water disposal system; Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re-use of treated effluents; industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.
- Solid Waste Management: Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers.
- Air, Noise pollution and Ecology: Concepts & general methodology.
10. Geo-technical Engineering and Foundation Engineering:
- Engineering for the Geosphere: Planning and methods for soil exploration; soil properties, classification, various tests, and interrelationships; Earth pressure theories, permeability and seepage, compressibility, consolidation and shearing resistance, and soil stress distribution; Geosynthetics’ properties and applications
- Engineering the Foundation: bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow and deep foundations, types of foundations and selection criteria; Dams and earth-retaining structures, earthen embankments, slope stability analysis: types, analysis and design, and ground modification principles
11. Surveying and Geology:
- Surveying- classification of surveys, various instruments, methodologies, and distance measurement and sensing concepts analyses; Survey the layout for culverts, canals, bridges, the alignment of roads and railroads, buildings, and the setting out of curves.
- Geology- Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its request in projects.
12. Transportation Engineering-
- Highways – Alignment and geometric design, construction planning and methodology; Controls and surveys of traffic; Design principles for rigid and flexible pavements. Tunneling: alignment, construction techniques, sewage disposal, drainage, lighting, and ventilation. Terminology, layouts, and planning for railway systems The terminology, layouts, and planning of harbors. Airport design, planning, and layout.
- 4P and 5C of marketing
- Porter model
- Strategic planning process
- SWOT analysis
- Value chain
- Core Competencies
2. Marketing Environment
- Marketing Environment
- Factors Influencing Consumer Buyer Behaviour
- The Marketing Research Process
3. Analysing the market
- Motivation theories: Freud, Maslow, Herzberg
- Buying Decision Process
- Market research
4. Connecting with customers
- Databases, Data Warehousing, Data Mining and Database marketing
- Marketing Funnel
- Customer Relationship Management
5. Developing marketing strategies
- Positioning and Differentiation
- Product Mix
- Market leadership strategies
- Product Life Cycle
- Brand Positioning
- Pricing Strategies
- Identifying Market Segments and Targets
6. Communication with customers
- Market Communication
- Process for Effective Communication; Advertising
- Different Advertising Media
- Communicating the value
- Brand equity – Role, scope and models
- Brand positioning
- Differentiation Strategies
- Competitive Strategies for Market Leaders
- Product Life-Cycle Marketing
- Pricing strategy
- Cannon of financial propriety
- Bank Guarantee, letter of credit and other banking transactions.
- Internal Audit and Statutory Audit
- Capital and Revenue Budgeting
- Corporate Social Responsibility
- Role of CAG in PSUs
2. Core Subjects
- Features of Schedule-III of Companies Act 2013
- Financial Management
- Costing and Cost Records
- Impairment in Telecom industry
- Income Tax Law
- Accounting Standards-IND AS
- GST Law
- Regulatory requirement
- Companies Act 2013
- Constitutional Law with reference to Preamble, fundamental rights, directive principle of state policy, writ petitions, special leave petition
- Indian Contract Act, 1996- Part-I
- Arbitration and conciliation Act, 1996 – Part-I
- Consumer Protection Act, 2019
- Special relief Act, 1963
- Important Latin terms and maxims
- Provisions of companies Act, 2013 with reference to RPT, CSR, Doctrines of Ultra virus/constructive notice/Indoor Management
- The Right to Information Act, 2005
- SEBI Act, 1992
- DPE guidelines with reference to Administrative mechanism for resolution of CPSEs Disputes (AMRCD), CSR and Corporate governance
- Telecom related laws such as Indian Telegraph Act 1885, TRAI Act 1997 and compliance of Licensing conditions
- Information Technology Act 2000
- Intellectual Property Right related Laws such as Trade marks Act, 1999 and Copyright Act, 1957
- Labour Laws such as contracts labour Regulation and Abolition ACT, 1970 AND SHOPS AND ESTABLISHMENT Act
- Rules made under Environment related laws to the extent applicable on RailTel such as e-waste Management Rules, 2016 and Battery Management & Handling Rules 2001
- Drafting of Legal Notice/Affidavit/Civil Petition on some legal issue (case specific)
- Core Database concepts
- Introduction to Databases and Transactions
- Basics of SQL, DDL, DML, DCL
- Mandatory Access Control
- Data Encryption
- Database objects, data storage, data Backup
- Data security
- Data Model
- Database System Concepts and Architecture
- Data Modelling Using the Entity-Relationship Model
- The Relational Data Model
- Relational Constraints
- Entity-Relationship and object Modelling
- The Relational Database Standard
- Query Processing & Query Optimization Database Design
- ER-Diagram and Unified Modelling Language
- Transaction management and Concurrency control
- Relational Algebra and Calculus
- Views and SQL
- SQL Joins
- Primary Key v/s Foreign Key.
- Server Planning
- Mail servers,
- Database servers,
- Collaboration servers,
- Monitoring servers,
- Threat management,
- Different Type of Operating System Management,
- Cloud Administration,
- Understanding of Web services- IIS, WWW, and FTP, installing from Server Manager, separate worker processes, adding components, sites, ports, SSL, certificates.
- Understanding of file, print services, accounts, groups,
- Active Directory infrastructure, different storage topologies, local storage, network storage,
- Fibre Channel, iSCSI hardware,
- RAID redundancy- RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 10 and combinations, hardware and software RAID,
- Solid State Drive (SSD) and Hard Disk Drive (HDD),
- ATA basic disk, dynamic disk, mount points, file systems, mounting a virtual hard disk, distributed file systems, performance monitoring, logs and alerts,
- Event Viewer, BIOS, UEFI, TPM, boot sector, bootloader, MBR, boot.ini,
- Safe Mode,
- Backup and restore, disaster recovery planning, clustering,
- AD restore, folder redirection, data redundancy,
- Software, driver, operating systems, applications,
- Windows Update,
- Windows Server Update Service (WSUS),
- Introduction to Linux,
- Open Source Development,
- Linux Security Fundamentals,
- File System Management,
- Run levels,
- Network file system (NFS),
- Domain naming service,
- Logical volume manager,
- Package Manager (RPM),
- Automation of jobs,
- Fundamentals of APACHE, SQUID, SAMBA.
- Perimeter Security
- Building security
- IOT Security
- Types – Script kiddies, Cyber terrorists, White, Grey and Black Hat hackers, Spy hackers, State sponsored hackers, hacktivist
- Motives of Hackers: Financial gain, political, causing damage, vendetta by ex-employees, curiosity etc
- Vulnerabilities, Exploits, Payloads, backdoors, shells
- CVE – Common Vulnerabilities and exposures
- CWE – Common Weakness enumeration
- Phases of hack – Reconnaissance, Scanning, Enumeration, Gaining access, Maintaining access, Clearing tracks
- OSINT Framework
3. Network Security
- OSI Model
- Threat sources – Internal (Employees, accidents, policies), External (Hackers, script kiddies etc)
- Types of attacks – DoS, Buffer overflows, Malwares, Social engineering, brute force
- Steps in a network attack – Information gathering, Port scanning, Network enumeration, Gaining and keeping admin access, Using the access/information, leaving a backdoor, covering tracks Security Policy
- Audits – Risk assessment, physical security audit, network configuration audit, pen-testing, Backup audit, employee awareness audit
- Firewalls, Types of firewalls – packet filtering, application proxy firewalls, Stateful firewall VPNs
- Spoofing – TCP, DNS, email
- Denial of Service attacks – SYN floods, UDP floods DDoS, Smurf attacks,
- Virus Scanners – Host based, Network based
- Wireless security
3. Introduction and Overview of Cyber security
- Layers of Security – Physical, Personal, Operations, Communications, Computer, Network and Information Security
- Vulnerabilities, threats and controls
- CIA – Confidentiality, Integrity and Authentication
- Software Vulnerabilities – Logic Bomb, Trojan Horse, Virus, Trapdoor, Worm etc
- Risk Mitigation techniques
- Controls– Encryption, Software, Hardware, Policies, and Physical securities. Types of Controls – preventive, detective, corrective, recovery, deterrent, compensating.
- Cyber defense – Network Security Gateway, Firewalls, IDS/IPS, Honeypots, Hardening of Systems with EDR
- Password policies
- Cryptography – Hashing, Digital Signatures, Digital Certificates
- Social Engineering and its types like Phishing, Vishing, Impersonation
- Need for cryptography – CIA, Non repudiation and Key exchange
- Types of cryptography – Symmetric, Asymmetric
- Ciphers, Traditional Ciphers – Substitution Ciphers & transposition ciphers
- DES – Data encryption standard
- AES – Advanced encryption standard
- One time pad (OTP)
- DIFFIE-HELLMAN Key exchange
- Hash, Digital Signature,
- Public Key Infrastructure – Certification authority, Registration Authority, Certificate Database, Certificate store
- IPSec, SSL/TLS, PGP
5. IT and Cyber Laws
- IT Act 2008 – background, Civil and Criminal IT offences, Adjudication process, Law of evidence, Cases
- IT Act 2000 and further amendment in 2008
- Scope of IT Act – application & legal recognition of electronic documents, Licensed certifying authorities, Jurisdictions, Cyber Appellate Tribunal, Digital Contracts,
- Civil Liabilities under Chapter IX – Sec 43 – damages to Computer Systems, Sec 43 A – Compensation, Sec 44 & 45 that deal with penalties
- Nature of Cybercrimes – Section 66, Section 66A (now scrapped), Section 66B(stolen computer, Section 66C(Identity theft), Section 66 D(impersonation), 66F(Cyber terrorism), Section 66E(Video voyeurism) Section 67(obscenity)
- Digital Signature related – Section 71 – penalty for misrepresentation, Section 73, Section 74
- Preserving Evidence – Sec 65 (tampering with computer source documents), Section 67C
- Privacy Related – Sec 72
- Provisions related to Empowering central agencies – Sec 69, 69A, 69B, 70B
- Power of Police officers – Sec 80
- Cognizability, Bailability, Compoundability
- Offences by Companies – Sec 85
- Personal Data Protection Bill 2019 – Data fiduciary, rights of individual, restrictions on data transfer outside India
6. Cloud Security
- Cloud computing and its types
- Cloud Infra – computing, network and storage
- Data Security in cloud
- CIA in Cloud
- Cloud OWASP Top 10
- R1 – Accountability and data risk
- R2 – User identity Federation
- R3 – Legal and regulatory compliance
- R4 – Business Continuity & Resiliency
- R5 – User Privacy & Secondary Usage of Data
- R6 – Service and Data integration
- R7 – Multi tenancy & Physical Security
- R8 – Incidence Analysis & Forensics
- R9 – Infrastructure Security
- R10 – Non production environment exposure
- Steps – Identify, Analyse, Evaluate, Treat, Monitor & Review risk
- Considerations regarding Risk Management – Culture, Information Sharing, Priorities, Resilience, Speed, Threat Environment, Cyber Hygiene
- Risk Calculation – Hazard * Vulnerability * Elements at risk
- Risk matrix
- Risk rating = likelihood*Severity.
8. Application Security
- Types – Data center, Desktop, Cloud, Mobile, Web applications
- Data Centre applications – Custom apps or third party apps
- Third party application security & risks
- Application Security Testing – DevOps, Source code security
- Cloud application security
9.NIST Cybersecurity Framework
- Establishing and Improving Organization’s Cybersecurity Program
10. Cybersecurity Best practices
- Breaches and their impacts
- Cyber resilience: Identify, Prevent, Detect and respond
- SOC – Security Operations Centre
- Incident response plan
- Practicing Cyber hygiene
- Data security – full disk encryption, backups, data masking, data erasure
- Governance Framework, Involvement of senior management
- Personnel screening and insider threats
- Physical security of assets
- Cybersecurity awareness and training
- Network security
- Information system protection
- Account management and access controls
- Asset management
- Endpoint Detection & Response
11. Security Operations Centre and SIEM:
- Identify and access management applications, vulnerability management, policy compliance tools, operating systems, database and application logs, and external threat data are all part of SIEM. It also includes gathering, analyzing, and presenting information from a wide range of network and security devices.
- SIEM is used to identify, document and respond to security events
- SIEM consists of Log management, IT regulatory compliance, Event correlation, active response and endpoint security
- Structure of SIEM: Source device -> Log collection -> Parsing -> Rule Engine/Correlation – Monitoring and Storage of logs
- SOC is a team of security analysts to detect, analyse, respond to, report on and to prevent cyber security incidents.
- SOC team must perform advanced forensic analysis, packet captures, malware reverse engineering on artefacts collected during an incident.
- IDS/HIPS/NIPS can be used to mitigate basic attacks, but major incidents require manual intervention.
- Automation and Response for Security Orchestration (SOAR): Technologies that enable organizations to collect inputs that are monitored by the security operations team are referred to as SOAR. For instance, standardized incident response activities can be defined, prioritized, and driven by alerts from the SIEM system and other security technologies, where human and machine power can be combined for incident analysis and triage. In a digital workflow format, SOAR tools enable an organization to define incident analysis and response procedures.
12. Cyber Security Incident Management:
- Incident types can be Denial of Service, Malicious code executions, Unauthorized access, Phishing, Man in middle etc
- Incident response team
- Elements of Incident response plan – Mission, Strategies and goals, Senior management approval, organizational approach, incident communication, metrics for measuring response effectiveness, roadmap for maturing the plan etc.
- Incident response lifecycle: Preparation, Decision and analysis, Containment, Eradication, Recovery, Post incident activity
- Tracking and reporting all incidents
- Types: adwares, spyware, virus, Trojan, worm, rootkit
- Analysis: Static and dynamic
14. Digital Forensics
- Network Forensics
- ▪ Steps in network forensics
- ▪ Digital forensic methods for network layers – Data link & physical layers, TCP/IP, Internet, Wireless,
- ▪ Tools – tcpdump, wireshark, xplico, netsniff etc
- Motivations – Blackmailing, fake profiles, Intellectual Property thefts
- Uses – Criminal and Civil investigations, Administrative requirements,
- Computer forensics – Intellectual Property theft, espionage, Regulatory compliance etc.
- Roles of Forensic Investigators – Collection and Preservation of data, reporting
- Forensic Toolkit
- Autopsy tool
- Total Internal Reflection,
- Snell’s Law,
- Critical Angle,
- Core & Cladding,
- Acceptance Cone,
- Numerical Aperture,
- Step Index Fibre,
- Graded Index Fibre,
- Optical Source and Detector,
- Optical Amplifier,
- Optical Power Budget,
- Fibre Splicing,
- Fibre Coupler & Connectors,
- Optical Receiver,
- PIN Photodiode,
- Avalanche Photodiode,
- Concept of SDH/SONET, SDH framing structure, E1/11,E2,E3, STM1, STM-4, STM-16, STM-64,
- Section Overhead,
- Path Overhead.
- Wavelength Division Multiplexing concept of CWDM, DWDM, 1TU-T Grid, ILA and EROADMs,
2. Digital Electronics
- Number System-Decimal, Binary, Octal & Hexadecimal
- Number system-Addition & Subtraction
- Boolean Algebra, Truth Table, Multiplexer & Demultiplexer
- Different logic gates, Encoder & Decoder, Registers, Flip-Flop
- Digital Memory- RAM, ROM etc.
3. Communication System
- Types of communication system, Analog and Digital system
- Amplitude Modulation, Frequency Modulation, Pulse Modulation, Pulse code modulation, Demodulation
- Wave propagation
- Satellite Communication.
4. Basic Concept of Computer Networking
- Different layer in OSI and TCP/IP
- Protocols and Purposes,
- Circuit Switching vs Packet switching,
- IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, MAC addressing
- Transport layer protocol TCP vs UDP,
- Unicast vs Multicast vs Broadcast ,
- Anycast routing,
- Error Correction and Detection,
- Basic routing operations,
- IPv4/IPv6 addressing,
- Static and dynamic routing
- Class of Service,
5. Switching, Routing & MPLS Protocol
- Spanning Tree Protocol,
- MAC address,
- Trunk Port vs Access Port,
- STP, 802.1q,
- Port channels,
- Neighbour discovery — CDP, LLDP,
- Storm control,
- Concept of MPLS , OSPF,IS-IS, BGP, LDP, RSVP, DHCP,
- PPPoE vs IPoE,
- Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF),
- Route-Distinguisher(RD) vs Route-Target(RT),
- MPLS-VPN, VPLS, L2 VPN, L3 VPN,
- Carrier Ethernet ,
- lPSec vs GRE Tunnel,
- PIPE routers,
- MPLS Traffic Engineering,
- Attributes of BGP , IBGP,EBGP, MP-BGP,
- First Hop Redundancy Protocols —VRRP/HSRP.
6. Internet Service
- IPv4 to IPv6 transition method,
- NAT 44, NAT64,
- Peering and Caching,
- PE-CE Connectivity,
- Radius/AAA server,
- DNS-Domain Name System.
7. Access Technology & Wireless Communication
- DSLAM, GPON, EPON,
- RF communication,
- CPE Routers,
- L2 & L3 manageable Switches,
- Wireless LAN- IEEE 802.11b/g/n & 802.11ac , Wi-Fi 6,
- Wireless on frequency band 2.4GHz & 5GHz,
- Wireless Frame,
- Wireless Security WEP, WPA, WPS, CSMA, CD